1 History 2 Design Details 3 Gallery 4 Trivia 5 References The weapon was designed by Edwin Pugsleyduring World War I in 1918, with the patent having been awarded in early December of that year. As a result, even the Polish Army had no idea about it until mobilization in the summer of 1939, just weeks before the start of the war. [12] Late in 1944, the Sherman-origin M36 appeared, equipped with a 90 mm cannon. The Australian Army also fitted M40 recoilless rifles to Land Rover Series 2 vehicles for use in an anti-tank role. The British had developed the High-explosive squash head (HESH) warhead as a weapon for attacking fortifications during the war, and found it surprisingly effective against tanks. [28] A North Korean soldier who exploded an American tank with a suicide bomb named Li Su-Bok is hailed as a hero in North Korean propaganda.[29]. By the beginning of WW2, anti-tank rifle teams could knock out most tanks from a distance of about 500 m, and do so with a weapon that was man-portable and easily concealed. This came to influence their planning in 1940. Professor Munroe was detonating different manufactured blocks of explosives on a sheet of armor plating and observed the blocks having the manufacturing letters recessed (vs. raised) cut an imprint of the manufacturing letters into the armor plate—the birth of the shaped-charged explosive which focuses the blast energy caused by an indentation on the surface area of an explosive. In a mobility kill (M-kill), the vehicle loses its ability to move, for example, by breaking a tank track or bogey or damaging the engine; the targeted tank is then immobile, but may retain full use of its weapons (large cannon, heavy machine gun and smaller machine guns) and still be able to fight to some extent. In order to penetrate vehicle armor, they fire smaller caliber shells from longer-barreled guns to achieve higher muzzle velocity than field artillery weapons, many of which are howitzers. Land mines and ordinary artillery were also used effectively. Now recently classified by the Home Office as an obsolete calibre in the UK. Although these systems allowed infantry to take on even the largest tanks, and, like HEAT, its effectiveness was independent of range, infantry typically operated at short range. Regular fragmentation grenades were ineffective against tanks, so many kinds of anti-tank grenades were developed. After the war, the T-Gewehr was banned by the Treaty of Versailles, and saw no further use, though it is believed that the Germans continued to manufacture it in secret. However, these suffered from fouling after 2–3 rounds and had a recoil that was unsustainable by the mechanism or the rifleman. In one form, the shell bursts in the air above the tank and a number of shaped charge (HEAT) or HEDP (High Explosive Dual Purpose) bomblets or grenades rain down. The Rifle, Anti-Tank, .55in, Boys, commonly known as the "Boys Anti-tank Rifle" (or incorrectly "Boyes"), was a British anti-tank rifle in use during the Second World War.It was often nicknamed the "elephant gun" by its users due to its size and large bore. The search for a more suitable, longer-range delivery system took up much of the immediate post-war era. Anti-tank guns are guns designed to destroy armored vehicles from defensive positions. Although the AT rifle performance was negated by the increased armor of medium and heavy tanks by 1942, they remained viable against lighter-armored and unarmored vehicles, and against field fortification embrasures. Rough terrain may expose the floor armor, and high ground such as multi-story buildings may expose the top armor. Although optical sniper scopes were tried with the PTRS-41, the weapons proved too inaccurate at sniping distances (800 m or more), and the recoil too much for effective use of the scopes. The Soviet Union, and now Russia, put extensive development into these weapons; the first man-portable model to enter service was the AT-3 in 1961. A firepower kill (F-kill) is some loss of the vehicle's ability to fire its weapons. 2 Fans. Overall, the LAW was regarded as a success, though its ignition system frequently suffered from misfires in the heat and humidity of Vietnamese jungles. According to the Sudanese writer Mansour Al-Hadj, Sudanese jihadists were trained to attack enemy tanks by suicide bombing them. Tanks were also vulnerable to hand-placed anti-tank mines. Something slightly different from my usual WW1 stuff, but here it is, the Boys Anti-Tank Rifle! [32] The North Korean tanks had a good deal of early successes against South Korean infantry, elements of the 24th Infantry Division, and the United States built M24 Chaffee light tanks that they encountered. Radios were not yet portable or robust enough to be mounted in a tank, although Morse Code transmitters were installed in some Mark IVs at Cambrai as messaging vehicles. The most profound anti-tank technology has been the guided missile, which when coupled with a helicopter can mean that tanks can be engaged beyond ground line of sight (LOS), and at one of their most vulnerable aspect, the top armor. Machine-guns and artillery might have defined the war, but the rifle was a soldier’s constant companion. 68 AT Grenade), to ones that simply contained a lot of explosive (the British No. It was also one of the most effective. The Indian Arjun tank has also been modified to fire this missile. The new doctrines of using the tank, were divided into infantry and cavalry schools of thought. This created a greater chance of causing a direct impact on the thinner top armor of the tank while also having the ability to damage track and wheels through proximity detonation. However, the Soviet tanks armed with 45 mm guns easily destroyed the German light tanks. 1 2 … 4 ». The little information that was brought out about the conduct of combat during that campaign did nothing to convince either France, Britain or the USSR of the need for improved anti-tank technology and tactics. In the last thirty years, however, a variety of artillery projectiles have been developed specifically to attack tanks. The first aircraft capable of engaging tanks was the Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" using dive bombing to place the bomb close to the target. The Soviet Red Army after the Russian Civil War also begun a search for an anti-tank gun with a French Hotchkiss 37 mm L.33 tank gun, but soon upgraded this to a higher velocity L.45 Model 1935 while also making a licensed copy of the German 3.7 cm PaK 36. In 1939, it was able to penetrate the armor of most tanks in the world, 37-40mm at a distance of 100m. [30], The initial assault by North Korean KPA forces was aided by the use of Soviet T-34-85 tanks. In the Soviet sphere of influence the legacy doctrine of operational maneuver was being theoretically examined to understand how a tank-led force could be used even with the threat of limited use of nuclear weapons on prospective European battlefields. Examples of guns in this class include the German 37 mm, US 37 mm (the largest gun able to be towed by the jeep), French 25 mm and 47 mm guns, British QF 2-pounder (40 mm), Italian 47 mm and Soviet 45 mm. Anti-tank warfare evolved rapidly during World War II (1939–1945), leading to the inclusion of infantry-portable weapons such as the Bazooka, anti-tank combat engineering, specialized anti-tank aircraft and self-propelled anti-tank guns (tank destroyers). Anti-tank tactics during the war were largely integrated with the offensive or defensive posture of the troops being supported, usually infantry. (@ww1_anti_tank_rifle) on TikTok | 0 Likes. you an idea of the size). Their large size and loud noise can allow enemy infantry to spot, track and evade tanks until an opportunity presents itself for counter-attack. Deploying small numbers of tanks would therefore cause the Allies to lose the element of surprise, allowing Germans to develop countermeasures. The 106 mm formed the basis of a dedicated anti-tank vehicle, the Ontos tank, which mounted six 106 mm rifles. It is sometimes known as the LAW 94, in reference to its caliber. There are a total of [ 132 ] Anti-Tank Weapons entries in the Military Factory. During the summer of 1944, U.S. Army Major Charles Carpenter managed to successfully take on an anti-armor role with his rocket-armed Piper L-4. [6] Although shaped charges are somewhat more difficult to manufacture, the advantage is that the projectile does not require as high velocity as typical kinetic energy shells, yet on impact it creates a high-velocity jet of metal flowing like a liquid due to the immense pressure (though x-ray diffraction has shown the metal stays solid[7]) which hydrodynamically penetrates the armor and kills occupants inside. Germany introduced more powerful anti-tank guns, some which had been in the early stages of development prior to the war. Guided anti-tank missiles were first used in a helicopter-borne role by the French in the late 1950s, when they mounted SS.11 wire-guided missiles on Alouette II helicopters. Both the Soviet Red Army and the German Army developed methods of combating tank-led offensives, including deployment of static anti-tank weapons embedded in in-depth defensive positions, protected by anti-tank obstacles and minefields, and supported by mobile anti-tank reserves and by ground-attack aircraft. This suggested that the infantry needed to be armed with integral anti-tank weapons. Improved artillery was seen as the quickest solution to anti-tank defense, and one of the earliest post-war anti-tank gun designs was the 25 mm Hotchkiss model from France. Click on image for larger scan. VOL 1, NO 1, MARCH 1998, SOME METALLURGICAL ASPECTS OF SHAPED CHARGE LINERS, Alistair Doig, p.1. Field artillery was particularly effective in firing against tank formations because although they were rarely able to destroy a tank by direct penetration, they would severely crater the area preventing the tanks from moving therefore causing them to become nearly stationary targets for the ground attack aircraft, or disrupting the enemy schedule and allowing own troops more time to prepare their defense. The successful test of the latter was during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol although the Red Army foundered on the Mannerheim Line in 1940, largely due to the purge in the Officer Corps, claiming many of the senior proponents of the new doctrine. ..and here's one that is now with a lucky collector in Canada (gives The Russians have also displayed a similar if more advanced system in the Reflex. The Red Army was also faced with a new challenge in anti-tank warfare after losing most of its tank fleet and a considerable part of its anti-tank capable cannons. M1918 or T-Gewehr was capable of penetrating around 20mm of armour at 100 If all else fails, the hatch could also be forced open and grenades thrown inside, although later tank designs often have hatches designed to be difficult to open from the outside. The reliance on the Maginot Line, and the subsequent surprise of the German offensive left no time to develop existing capabilities and tactics in the West. For the Invasion of Normandy, the British produced the 3-inch (76.2 mm) calibre QF 17 pounder, whose design had begun before the 6 pounder entered service, which proved to be a highly effective anti-tank gun and was also used on the tank and the tank destroyer. Below: Two technical drawings, cartridge and rifle. These losses, coupled with those from enemy artillery fire, later amounted to as high as 70% of the starters during some operations. Since the end of the Cold War in 1992, the only major new threats to tanks and other armored vehicles have been remotely detonated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used in asymmetric warfare and weapon systems like the RPG-29 and FGM-148 Javelin, which can defeat reactive armor or shell armor. This was the tried and true shotgun of its day . A towed gun was much cheaper than a tank and could be concealed in a shallow position. Changes in the anti-tank tactics since the Second World War mostly came from the appearance of new technologies, and increased firepower of the infantry mounted on fully armored vehicles. Lack of consensus on the design and use of the tank after the First World War also influenced the development of its anti-tank countermeasures. The spotter could load the rifle to mitigate this limitation. If tank crewmen unbutton for better visibility they become vulnerable to small arms fire, grenades and molotov cocktails. The 50 caliber Browning Machine Gun cartridge entered service in 1921. Still take it hunting every year. Two aspects of how the Second World War commenced helped to delay development of anti-tank warfare: resignation and surprise. By 1943, most armies judged anti-tank rifles to lack combat effectiveness due to the diminished ability to penetrate the thicker armor of new tanks – produced at the Waffenfabrik Mauser AG factory at Oberndorf am Neckar, 73 Grenade). Anti-tank defense proper was by 1942 designed in First World War fashion with several prepared trench lines incorporating anti-tank weapons of different capabilities. This approach suggested that the tank was the best anti-tank system, and only limited anti-tank troops were required to accompany them. Anti-tank tactics developed rapidly during the war but along different paths in different armies based on the threats they faced and the technologies they were able to produce. 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